Tag Archives: pedestrianism

William Gazley, The Star of Kent – A Running Pedestrian

Running Past has covered several running and walking pedestrians over the last year or so, within the running ones from around the 1840s the name of William Gazley (also spelled Gazeley and Gazly in some reports) quite often appears.

Unlike some of the others, he wasn’t a star, other than his competitive name – the ‘Star of Kent’, and he tried his hand at a range of distances as well as a very odd race on Blackheath involving running and picking up stone weights.

Source - ebay March 2016

Source – ebay March 2016

His reported career was a relatively short one.  One of the first reports of Gazley in the press was a race in October 1842 against another local runner Tom Cook, the Greenwich Cowboy – someone already covered in the blog. It was from the five mile marker outside the Green Man (see picture above), near the top of Blackheath Hill over Shooters Hill to the nine mile marker and returning to the Green Man.  The race was for 10 shillings, with ‘heavy bets dependent on the outcome.’ (1) Gazley seems to have opened up a lead on the run back up Shooters Hill from near Welling, taking 20 yards out of his opponent which he extended by the end, winning by 40 yards (2).

Gazley1

Two months later, in December 1842, he ran again over part of the same route. It was over a mile from the milestone opposite the Earl of Moira (later the Brook and now a Co-op) down Shooters Hill Road to the  mile marker on the edge of Blackheath – at the junction of Prince of Wales Road.  The race report suggests he ‘looked pale, and not in his usual fine condition.’ (3)

image

He lost the race to Tom Maxfield, the North Star, who was to become one of the leading runners of the day.  The latter was a coal carrier based in Berkshire, but originally hailed from Sheffield.  Maxfield was the first runner to cover 20 miles in under 2 hours – in the impressive time of 1:58:30 in 1845.  This was a time only bettered bettered by 65 runners in 2015.

Maxfield won in 5 minutes 10 seconds, but could have gone faster, on what is largely a reverse of the the first mile of the London Marathon (4)

IMG_0844

It was a big event though with crowds of up to 8000 lining the route, the local punters had clearly backed the Star of Kent to win, but it was the ‘sporting gentry’ from London who seemed to have made the money. (5)

The strangest event of Gazley’s reported career was from the Hare and Billet in Blackheath in March 1843, it was to pick up ‘300 stones, a yard apart each, in a course of 51 miles 540 yards, for with each stone the party had to return to the place he started from, and they were to be picked up in four hours.’  The wager was a paltry 10 shillings for what would have been a superhuman feat.

The reported distance was clearly not possible within the timescales  – it would have required back to back marathons faster than current world record pace, plus the small matter of the stones…..Oddly, neither Gazley or his opponent, ‘the Veteran Townsend’ completed the task – the latter calling it a day after two hours and Gazley completing 30 miles but with 35 stones left.  As the report in The Tablet noted

They went home defeated, and will not speedily recover from the effects of the fatigue experienced.

 

Gazley was meant to have a re-match with the Greenwich Cowboy, over 10 miles from Dartford to Blackheath in April 1843 for 10 Sovereigns, but Cook had to forfeit (6). Whether Gazley would have been in any state to race after the stone lifting contest was probably debatable though.

In September 1843, he was to race Edward Wild, Merrylegs, a Mancunian runner who seems to have been locally based, from the Tigers Head at Lee Green for 20 sovereigns over 8 miles, although the outcome is unclear (7).

He competed at the Rosemary Branch in Peckham against another pedestrian called Dixon, it wasn’t a planned race, neither had trained for it but both were present to watch Merrylegs race Maxfield. It seems that they were both persuaded by ‘sporting gentlemen’ backers to race over 2.5 miles for 5 sovereigns. Gazley’s backers expected ‘easy pickings’ but Dixon took the lead from the off and it seems that Gazley threw in the towel with around half a mile to go.

‘The ignominious defeat has given to Gazley vaunting a severe damper, and he sporting world are not likely to hear from him again for some time to come.’ (8)

Gazley’s defeat at the Rosemary Branch, didn’t stop challenges coming in from other runners though.  The following week Thomas Birkhead of Sheffield offered 25 or 50 sovereigns to a number of named runners including Greenwich Cowboy and Gazley over 10 to 20 miles, it isn’t known if Gazley or any of the others took up the challenge (9).

However press reports of him actually racing don’t appear again until September 1845 when he tried his hand at hurdling over 440 yards in a race at the Tiger’s Head at Lee Green (10) already mentioned in the blog – he didn’t get through to the final which was won by Railway Jack.

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The final mention of his running career came in 1849 when he challenged Dan Williams of Bermondsey over a mile up Blackheath Hill – perhaps from around Deptford Bridge to the Green Man. Whether the race came off is unknown though.

So who was William Gazley? Newspaper reports often referred to Gazely as being from Blackheath, this means relatively little though – it could have been where he was then living, where his financial backers were based, or where he was born.  The 1841 census throws up a possible identification – a William Gazley living in Bennett Street (now Grove) just off Lewisham Road, close to Blackheath Hill.  It was a house that he and his wife Sarah, and daughter, also Sarah shared with two other households.   A generation later, Booth described the street as ‘2 storey houses, small, labouring people, rather rough’

The information in 1841 census was limited and the dates of adults in bands, however, the same William Gazley was living in King Street on the Greenwich/Lewisham borders in 1851 – he was listed as a 34 year old boiler maker. It is certainly roughly the right age – he would have been 25 when he raced Tom Cook on Shooters Hill Road.

King Street was close to the junction of Lewisham Road and Blackheath Hill, roughly where Sparta Street is now.  This was poor housing – six years after the census there was a death from dysentery there; by the time Booth visited around 40 years later, the street was coloured light blue – ‘Poor’ with an income of 18 to 21 shillings a week.  However, it was a step up from Bennett Street as it wasn’t a shared house.

If, and it is a big “if”, this is the Star of Kent, he was born in Greenwich and seems to have lived around the Greenwich during most of his competitive career – his second youngest, also William, was born there in 1845 along with two older children.   By 1848 the family was living in Deptford where his youngest child Elizabeth was born, meaning that the move to King Street had been a recent one.  This Gazley was a single parent, presumably Sarah had died.  Sadly, there is no mention of this William Gazley in subsequent censuses.

Notes

  1. The Morning Post (London, England), Thursday, October 20, 1842; Issue 22388. 19th Century British Library Newspapers: Part II.
  2.  ibid
  3.  The Era (London, England), Sunday, December 18, 1842; Issue 221.
  4.  ibid
  5.  ibid
  6.  The Era (London, England), Sunday, April 9, 1843; Issue 237.
  7. The Era (London, England), Sunday, August 27, 1843; Issue 257
  8. The Era (London, England), Sunday, August 11, 1844; Issue 307.
  9. The Era (London, England), Sunday, August 18, 1844; Issue 308.
  10. Picture from information board at Lee Green

 

Walking 1100 Miles in 1100 hours on Blackheath – Josiah Eaton, the Woodford Pedestrian

A few months ago the blog covered the tale of George Wilson, the Blackheath Pedestrian who attempted to walk 1000 miles over 20 days in the late summer of 1815 around a mile course from the Hare and Billet.

Wilson was prevented by local magistrates from completing his walk, while they eventually backed down; he failed in his challenge as there was a gap in the walk.

The landlord of the Hare and Billet clearly saw pedestrianism as a means of increasing his income and another even longer walk was planned for a couple of months after Wilson’s ill-fated attempt.  The pedestrian this time was Josiah Eaton, the Woodford Pedestrian.

Josiah_Eaton,_a_long_distance_walker._Etching._Wellcome_V0007073

 

The nature of the walk was a little different to Wilson’s; the Blackheath Pedestrian was to walk 50 miles a day in one block of walking.  While the daily distance to be covered by Eaton was just 24 miles, the big difference was that it was that a mile needed to be completed in every single hour – meaning that there was no potential for any sustained rest.  This was the same approach to distance walking as that used by perhaps the most famous pedestrian of the age, Captain Barclay.

IMG_0924

The route though was the same mile loop as Wilson’s – which is likely to have have taken Eaton from the pond next to the Hare and Billet along what is now Goffers Road past Whitefield’s Mount (covered before in Running Past), the top right image above.  It would be then towards the location of the Tea Hut (although there would have been a 250 year wait for a cuppa) .  It would then across the Heath to close to the junction of Wat Tyler Road and Hare and Billet Road (bottom right photo) before returning along the latter – one of the old roads across the Heath.

Eaton started on 10 November 1815 and was due to finish his task on Boxing Day. The Times noted on 18 November that when he started, the betting had been against him completing the walk but after a week the smiling Eaton was winning the gamblers around despite poor weather (1).

Eaton Times

By Christmas Day The Times reported him in ‘undiminished heath and spirits’, despite apparent suggestions of cheating which saw his backers swear affidavits at the Mansion House as to witnessing him undertaking the feat (2)

Eaton Times 2

His walk was completed at around 8:15 on Boxing Day but he kept on until dusk to satisfy the crowds that gathered during the day and to enable a ‘large party of respectable persons’ to watch him at 4:00 pm (3).

It is not known how much Eaton made from his successful walk – but after swearing an affidavit in front of the Lord Mayor he issued a series of challenges (4):

  1. Josiah Eaton will undertake, at the completion of his present task, to perform another thousand, or even fifteen hundred miles in as many hours, as The case may be, without resting from the fatigues of his present undertaking. Or he will start immediately against any other man, to walk a mile an hour until either decline the contest, for a proportionate subscription, to belong entirely to the winner. All claims to the subscription, however, to be abandoned by either party on the non- performance of the task.
  2. Eaton will also, for a subscription of one thousand pounds, undertake to walk one mile every hour for three months successively; and should he fail, even towards the conclusion, he will forfeit all claim to reward.
  3. Eaton, for an. adequate subscription, will undertake to walk 60 miles per day, for- 10 days successively, and of course to forfeit all^ claim to reward if he failed even on the last day.

Little is known of Eaton prior to his 1100 mile walk on Blackheath other than he was born in Woodford in Northamptonshire around 1770, was by trade a baker and was a small man – 5’2” (158 cm) tall.  It must be presumed that he had undertaken some similar feats prior to arriving in Blackheath but records of these seem to have been lost.  The Blackheath walk is the first mentioned in his entry in the Popular Biography of Northamptonshire published in 1839.

Eaton returned to the Hare and Billet the following summer and completed the same task although making it a lot harder for himself by having to finish each mile by 20 past the hour – the previous autumn’s walk allowed back to back miles (5).  There was a dinner celebrating the second walk’s completion in Cornhill on Friday 6 September – with tickets at 15 shillings, which included a bottle of wine (6)

He continued to perform almost Herculean feats over the next few years – on 5 December 1816, he completed 1998 half-miles in 1998 succeeding half hours on Brixton Causeway (now Brixton Hill & Brixton Road) – it was to be 2000 but after a dispute with a backer he issued a ‘press release’ a ended the walk an hour early.  In June 1817 he successfully competed with another walked, called Baker, to complete 2000 miles in 42 days.

In August and September 1817 he walked from Colchester to London one day then back to Colchester the following day – a distance of 51 miles, completing the circuit 10 times.

In Stowmarket, Suffolk, in 1818 Eaton took the lack of sustained rest to a new extreme – walking a quarter of a mile every successive quarter of an hour for six weeks – finishing just before 2:00 pm on 23rd June 1818.

That appeared to be the end of Eaton’s walking career but he then re-appeared in New York aged 77 proposing again to walk 1000 miles in 1000 hours in November 1847 at a 30 yard course at a bowling alley.  While it is known that he started the feat, Scientific American mentioned it in passing; it isn’t known whether he completed the walk.

Josiah_Eaton

Notes

  1. The Times (London, England), Saturday, Nov 18, 1815; pg. 3; Issue 9682
  2. The Times (London, England), Monday, Dec 25, 1815; pg. 3; Issue 9713
  3. Nottingham Journal, 30/12/1815
  4. The Times (London, England), Monday, Jan 01, 1816; pg. 3; Issue 9719
  5. Edinburgh Register June 13 1816
  6. The Times (London, England), Saturday, Aug 24, 1816; pg. 1; Issue 9922.

 

 

Tom Cook, The Greenwich Cowboy – a Victorian Running ‘Pedestrian’

Tom Cook was one of the journeyman professionals of the running branch of pedestrianism in the 1840s.  Other than his nickname, ‘Greenwich Cowboy’ and the tales of his races, little is known about him.  There was a Thomas Cook from Norfolk who lived in East Greenwich in the 1851 census who would fall roughly in the right age group but his ‘trade’ was different, so it may well not be him. However, his name regularly appeared in the sporting pages of the 1840s and early 1850s with a career that seems to have started, although is not reported at the time, around 1839 and carried on until at least 1853.

Pedestrianism had developed in the 18th century – initially it seems as walking but one branch had evolved into professional running where the competitors offered challenges to one another over particular distances, sometimes with a handicap.

The amounts raced for were considerable – £20 in 1850, at current prices, this is worth in the region of £64,000, although much of the money would probably have been made by the wealthy backers of the pedestrians, rather than the athletes themselves.

The athletes themselves will have earned a fraction of the sums staked, and, without modern methods of training, shoes, clothing and physiotherapy it was probably a precarious occupation.  The pedestrians all seemed to have nicknames.

The first that is heard of Cook was in early 1843 whether another runner, Maxwell, forfeited his initial stake to the ‘Greenwich Cowboy’, presumably being unable to run (1).  The early reports were all notices of races rather than reports – he was meant to race Blackheath’s Gazeley over 10 miles from Dartford to Blackheath in April 1843 for 10 Sovereigns, but had to forfeit (2).

In June 1843 he had his first press report, a victory over Peter Murphy, over 10 miles from the (Old) Tiger’s Head at Lee, over a mile course on the main road – seemingly from Lee Green to around what is now Eltham Green along Eltham Road – winning comfortably.  Oddly his opponent had two names, depending on the report ‘Temperance’s Romani’ (3) or ‘Manchester Pet’ (4).

image

During 1844 he was challenged, amongst others, by Richard Manks, the ‘Warwickshire Antelope’, over distances of 1 mile or more for 5 – 25 sovereigns in July 1844 (5). He beat Ned Wilde (Merrylegs) ‘with great ease’ for 10 sovereigns after being given a 40 seconds at the Rosemary Branch in Peckham (6).  The Rosemary Branch was a pub, which stayed open until 1971, and, like the Tiger’s Head at Lee Green promoted a wide variety of sports – more on that in the blog another day.

1845 saw bigger stakes – beating James Openshaw of Bury for £25 over both 4 and 10 miles, presumably in the same race; (7) there was heavy betting on the race in front of a large crowd at the Rosemary Branch (8).

While his career continued, there are fewer reports, 1846 saw his first reported defeat – over 2 miles at Lee Green to James Byron – losing by nearly 100 yards (9).  He was challenged over 2 miles by a Lewisham runner, ‘Pirrian’s Novice’, over a mile in 1848 (10) and beat a runner called Dawkins over 2 miles at Smitham Bottom in Purley in 1849 – being described as ‘the old boy’(11).

His career was probably on the wane though, defeats were much more common. He lost to Bull at the Rosemary Brach in 1850 for a massive £40 stake (12)

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By the 1850s age seems to have been catching up with him, while he still had his backers for wagers of up to £40 there were a lot more defeats reported – losing twice to Thomas Birkhead, before beating him over 10 miles in Sheffield in late 1852 (13).  Then losing to the ‘Warwickshire Antelope’ in Barking at Easter 1853 over 10 miles (14)

His last known race of what seems to have been a career spanning around 15 years was a failed attempt to run 20 miles in 2 hours in early August 1853 – he completed the first 5 miles in 28 minutes, but it appears he had gone off too quickly as while he was recorded at 59:07 for 10 miles he was slowing down and got into difficulties quite soon after and gave up during the 12th mile (15).

With the advantage of modern training methods and kit, only 81 British runners ran under 2 hours for 20 miles in 2014, and the time at 10 miles was only bettered by 350 in 2014.

As the identity of Cook is uncertain, we cannot be sure what happened to him after his athletic career was over.  If, and it is a big ‘if’, he was the Thomas Cook from the 1851 census, he  lived at 8 Enderby Cottages in East Greenwich and was listed as a ‘watchman.’ If it was him, he was having to take a second job to make ends meet as his career waned.  That Cook was married to Jemima who was originally from Gravesend, just down the river in Kent.  There is no record of either of them after 1851. According to the excellent Greenwich Peninsula History site, Enderby Cottages were at the end of Blackwall Lane, and had been built for rope makers at the Enderby Works; one of the other occupants of number 8 was indeed a ropemaker.

Notes

  1. The Era (London, England), Sunday, February 5, 1843; Issue 228.
  2. The Era (London, England), Sunday, April 9, 1843; Issue 237.
  3. The Era (London, England), Sunday, 11 June, 1843; Issue 246.
  4. The Morning Post (London, England), Saturday, June 10, 1843; pg. 5; Issue 22588, the picture of the Tiger’s Head is from the information board at Lee Green
  5. The Era (London, England), Sunday, July 14, 1844; Issue 303.
  6. The Era (London, England), Sunday, November 10, 1844; Issue 320
  7. Lloyd’s Weekly London Newspaper (London, England), Sunday, July 6, 1845; Issue 137.
  8. The Era (London, England), Sunday, July 6, 1845; Issue 354
  9. The Era (London, England), Sunday, January 18, 1846; Issue 382
  10. The Era (London, England), Sunday, March 12, 1848; Issue 494
  11. Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper (London, England), Sunday, November 25, 1849; Issue 366.
  12. The Era (London, England), Sunday, April 28, 1850; Issue 605, the other picture is not of Cook but is illustrative and is another 19th century pedestrian – source
  13. The Era (London, England), Sunday, January 2, 1853; Issue 745
  14. The Era (London, England), Sunday, April 3, 1853; Issue 758
  15. The Era (London, England), Sunday, August 7, 1853; Issue 776

George Wilson – The Blackheath Pedestrian

One of the stranger sporting events on Blackheath in the early 19th century involved the ‘Blackheath Pedestrian’ – a middle aged Geordie who was challenged to walk 1000 miles over 20 days at 50 miles a day.  He became something of a cause célèbre after what can only be regarded as abuse of power by the local magistrates.

Pedestrianism was a form of competitive walking which developed in the 18th and 19th centuries often funded by challenges with large wagers, it eventually evolved into what is now known as race walking.  Later in the 19th century, the same term was, slightly confusingly, used in the press to refer to running over shorter distances.

It is worth telling a little of the story of George Wilson before he arrived at the Hare and Billet.  He was born in Newcastle in 1766 and had tried his hand at several trades including a clerk in his mother’s pawnbroking business (1), his own business as a hosier and draper (2) and later a tax collector (3).  With the second of those he walked to London and back – a distance of over 550 miles.  He spent some time in 1805 working for a London map maker measuring distances on foot in South west England with an early measuring wheel (4).

On his return to Newcastle he started looking for wagers on walking long distances – the first was to complete the 84 mile length of Hadrian’s Wall within 24 hours (5). After a legal dispute over leases to some properties in Newcastle, and a bitter separation from his wife he ended up in the debtors prison on two occasions (6).  Whilst in prison, for a wager of £3 and 1 shilling, he successfully walked 50 miles in 12 hours over a tiny circuit (7).

After his release from prison he sold children’s books and pamphlets on foot in eastern England and then around Gravesend and Woolwich.  Whilst in a pub close to Shooters Hill (possibly the Earl of Moira), he accepted a wager of £20 to £5 on walking 96 miles in 24 hours on 30 August 1814, which he did over a measured course on Shooters Hill Road with 30 minutes to spare (8).

He carried out similar wagers in the area before being offered 100 Guineas to walk 1000 miles over 20 days at 50 miles a day on Blackheath.  The course was to be a measured mile starting opposite the Hare and Billet (9).

The exact route is unclear but he described a triangle and press reports of events at the end of his walk describe him going towards the Green Man, which was on Blackheath Hill.  A possible route might have taken him from pond next to the Hare and Billet along what is now Goffers Road (although wasn’t a road at the time of Roque’s map 75 years before) past Whitefield’s Mount (covered before in Running Past), the top right image above – certainly an engraving published during the walk (below) has him passing a small hill, which could only be the Mount.

It would be then towards the Tea Hut, although it would be another 250 years before that appeared – instead the view may have been dominated by Montague House, or a new lack of it, the House was demolished in 1815.  It would then across the Heath to close to the junction of Wat Tyler Road and Hare and Billet Road (bottom right photo) before returning along the latter – one of the old roads across the Heath.

The landlord of the Hare and Billet was to feed and house him over the 20 days from 11 September 1815. The pub was noisy though and he was unable to get enough sleep so he soon moved out, temporarily housed by a Blackheath resident, John Dyer (10).

Wilson was small (5′ 4″) and light (8 st 10 lb) with a slight limp probably the result of an attack when in prison.  His diet was ‘fowls, jellies, strong broth, teas, milk, eggs and a moderate quantity of Madeira wine (11).”

Picture of the Pedestrian by Edward ‘Old’ Williams passing Whitefield’s Mount

He planned to delay his walking until after Sunday services, but magistrates at the Green Man decreed that he could not walk at all on Sundays (12). He kept to his original plan but moved just beyond the magistrates jurisdiction – the 6 mile stone on Shooters Hill Road – starting from around where the current milestone is.

His attire was a cotton jacket and loose striped trousers by this stage in the proceedings (13) – top left cutting. Large crowds were building, with large numbers of booths selling alcohol, see top right cutting  (14). The following Sunday he did his walking at Langley Park in Beckenham, Lord Glywdir’s residence (15), presumably to get into Surrey and away from the troublesome magistrates.

Crowds were building with and Wilson had to plead for them not to get in his way, see cutting on bottom right (16), but the following day, with 5 days still to complete the Greenwich magistrates issued a warrant for his arrest, see bottom left cutting (17)
A very tumultuous assemblage of people from the surrounding and other parishes and occasioning a considerable interruption to the peace of the inhabitants…apprehend the said George Wilson….


At the subsequent hearing on October 5 1815 there was debate about whether it was Wilson or others who were breaching the peace, whether the warrant was legal, whether there had been any complaint from residents surrounding the Heath and whether in fact any law had been broken (18).

It seems that the magistrates backed down and Wilson was eventually ‘discharged and conducted home in triumph, decorated with ribbons, and accompanied by the shouts of the multitude.’ (19)

However, as there had been a nine day gap in the walk, the attempt to walk 1000 miles in 20 days was over.  It appears to have been an abuse of power by the magistrates, using dubious legal means to prevent the walk after failing with the attempts to derail it by attempting to prevent walking on Sundays.

It understandably left Wilson somewhat bitter, in the autobiographical pamphlet he finished a few days after the magistrates hearing, he was careful not to leave himself open to further legal action, but wrote with a large degree of irony (20)  He ‘dedicated’ the pamphlet to the magistrates saying he did not want to

question the justice and impartiality of issuing your warrant against me individually, while so many other showmen, tumblers, conjurers and gin sellers, at least equally, as I conceive, attractive of crowds as myself, were allowed to depart in peace and unmolested, with the gainful produce of their exertions in their pockets – such things are above my vulgar comprehension.

Wilson seems to have won a lot of public support and got his £100 prize after a collection at the Stock Exchange.  He certainly took full advantage of his  fame,  a few nights after his release he appeared at the Royal Circus – a theatre on Blackfriars Road for at least three nights – taking out an advertisement in The Times (21).

He walked 1100 miles in 1100 consecutive hours, beating Captain Barclay – another leading pedestrian in December 1815 at Eaton (22).  It is known that he was to attempt 1500 miles at 50 miles a day around Lords in 1816, although it may not have happened (23).

He undertook a series of walks in East Anglia in the summer of 1817 and that autumn completed 1000 miles in 18 days in Manchester.  It was to be the first of three occasions that he completed this feat – the final occasion was in Chelsea in June 1820.

The last that was heard of him was at Easter in 1822, when he walked 90 miles including some in every hour over 24 hours at Newcastle Racecourse (24).

Notes

  1. George Wilson (1815) A Sketch of the Life of G. W. the Blackheath Pedestrian, … written by himself p16
  2. ibid p19
  3. ibid p18
  4. ibid p20
  5. ibid p22
  6. ibid p40
  7. ibid p40
  8. ibid p48
  9. ibid p52
  10. ibid p53
  11. ibid p82
  12. ibid p58
  13. Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh, Scotland), Monday, September 25, 1815; Issue 14634.
  14. The Morning Chronicle (London, England), Saturday, September 23, 1815; Issue 14474
  15. Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh, Scotland), Saturday, September 30, 1815; Issue 14639
  16. ibid
  17. ibid
  18. “Wilson, The Pedestrian.” Times [London, England] 6 Oct. 1815: 3.
  19. ibid
  20. Wilson op cit, p2
  21. The Times (London, England), Tuesday, Oct 10, 1815; pg. 3; Issue 964
  22. The Morning Post (London, England), Monday, December 25, 1815; Issue 14018.
  23. The York Herald, and General Advertiser (York, England), Saturday, November 25, 1815; Issue 1317.
  24. The Morning Post (London, England), Wednesday, April 17, 1822; Issue 15940.