In the middle of Blackheath, close to Goffers Road, is a small protuberance covered with what looks like broom and a few gorse bushes. It may not necessarily look that impressive but it has an interesting history. It is known as Whitefield’s Mount, or variants such as Whitfield’s Mount or Mound, or just The Mount, and has been a gathering point for centuries. Whitefield was an18th century preacher but as the Mount has much older associations and a previous name, we will return to him later.
Whether the Mount is natural or a barrow or other man made construct is unclear, certainly there are pre-historic barrows and evidence of early activity in the area, but an archaeological report on a site within a few metres of it makes no such claim for the Whitefield’s Mount. It is likely that it the Mount was a little bigger than it currently is as it was used as a 17th century butt for artillery practice – in March 1687 John Evelyn noted in his diary
I saw a trial of those develish, murdering, mischief-doing engines called bombs, shot out of a mortar-piece on Blackheath. The distance that they are cast, the destruction [which] they make where they fall, is prodigious.
Prior to the development of the route of the current A2 across the heath it would have been at the main cross roads, which is shown in John Roque’s map of the 1740s – one of the roads headed of for the delightfully named ‘Dowager’s Bottom’ (roughly where Tranquil Vale is now).
The mound was formerly referred to as ‘Wat Tyler’s Mound’ as there were apparently speeches to the rebels in the Peasant’s Revolt there on 12 June 1381 before they marched on to London. The speakers included John Ball, whose name lives on through a school in Blackheath, whose sermon stirred the rebels
When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? From the beginning all men by nature were created alike, and our bondage or servitude came in by the unjust oppression of naughty men. For if God would have had any bondmen from the beginning, he would have appointed who should be bond, and who free. And therefore I exhort you to consider that now the time is come, appointed to us by God, in which ye may (if ye will) cast off the yoke of bondage, and recover liberty.
Just over a hundred years later, it seems that the Mound was used for the same purpose by Michael An Gof, and Thomas Flamank, the leaders of the revolting Cornishmen prior to the Battle of Deptford Bridge (the first post on this blog covered this). It has been suggested that the Mound was the place of burial for many of the fallen Cornishmen that day.
It was a regular gathering point for the Chartists – meetings there had become a regular feature by May 1839 and were of a size to cause concern to the authorities. The Blackheath stop of a speaking tour by Peter McDouall in July 1842 brought around 4,000 to the Mount.
The Mount wasn’t the only place on the Heath used by the Chartists – Feargus O’Connell spoke from a ‘van’ outside Princess Sophia’s estate in 1844, presumably this was the Rangers House as she was the Greenwich Ranger until she died later that year.
However, the Mount seems to have been the main location used as Chartist meetings there continued throughout their existence, there was notably a meeting of Woolwich, Deptford, and Greenwich Chartists on 9 April1848 to rally support for a massive demonstration the following day in Kennington. The Blackheath rally was described in the not entirely sympathetic London Universe, a Catholic penny paper
Meeting in Blackheath.—On Sunday morning an open-air meeting of the Woolwich, Deptford, and Greenwich Chartists, took place, in spite of the rain, at Whitfield’s Mount, Blackheath. A Mr. Robinson was selected to preside. A determined intention was expressed to attend the demonstration next day, and an attempt was made to get up the Marseillaise hymn, which signally failed. The speeches were extremely inflammatory.
A poster for Kennington from Wikipedia
Robinson’s ‘inflammatory’ speech included the rallying call
We are determined to conquer tomorrow; nothing shall put us down. We shall not be terrified by bullets or bayonets; they have no terrors for oppressed starving men.
Political meetings and rallies there continued into the early years of the 20th century. It was the location for protests against the London County Council taking over the responsibilities of the former School Boards in 1903.
More importantly it was the location for regular suffragette meetings. The Lewisham, Blackheath and Greenwich area seems to have been an area of strength for the movement and a hundred metres or so away May Billinghurst attacked a post box (there was a post on this here a few months ago). It was reported in April 1909 that
On Sunday afternoon the meetings were resumed at Whitfield’s Mount, Blackheath, when Mrs. McKenzie took the chair and Miss Hewitt, of Manchester, and Mrs. Bouvier, of Lewisham, were the speakers. There was an exceptionally large crowd. Whilst the last-named lady was speaking, a man commented that she was telling “the same old story.” Mrs. Bouvier acknowledged that that was true, and said that if the male voters were tired of “the old story” the best thing they could do was to write the Cabinet members urging the enfranchisement of women. Until they secured the vote they would continue to tell “the old story” at Blackheath and elsewhere (laughter and hear, hear).
In August 1913, The Blackheath Local Guide and District Advertiser reported that Blackheath Suffragists met with the Kent group of the non-violent National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies at Lee Green on 24 July before marching to Whitefield’s Mount. The Suffragists wore scarlet, white and green sashes and carried banners inscribed “Home-makers demand votes” and “Law-abiding women”. The newspaper report noted that there was no hostility and all appeared to pass quietly. This was the Kent leg of the Women’s Suffrage Pilgrimage which saw marches bringing 50,000 women from all over the country converge on Hyde Park on 26 July.
As was noted earlier, the current name “Whitefield’s Mount” is named after George Whitefield an 18th century evangelical Anglican preacher who was one of the founding fathers of Methodism. He used The Mount to preach to large crowds, estimated as being up to 20,000, singing from the meetings could be heard 2 miles off, and his voice 1 mile away (Nosier than the recent onblackheath festival!). It was at one of Whitefield’s meetings that the young John Wesley’s first field-preached London in June 1739
It was used in the 19th century by Baptist Minister George Charles “Bo’sun” Smith as an open air pulpit to preach in particular to soldiers from Woolwich barracks and sailors from naval hospital in Greenwich.
There is still a tradition of open air ecumenical religious meeting there on Good Friday each year – it isn’t clear whether this goes back to Whitefield’s time but certainly there were certainly open air religious meetings there in 1905. The meetings though are now to the west of the Mount, the density of the broom would make it hard to do anything other than play hide and seek there.
Excellent blog. But I looked in vain to read the account of the protests about the poll tax. Mrs Thatcher’s one, that is.
Thanks! I don’t think that there were any links to the 1980s Poll Tax (although obviously there was to the 1381 version) to Whitefield’s Mount. I did look for protests and rallies after the suffragettes but didn’t find anything. Given the amount of gorse and broom it would be quite difficult there now and I supppose with the development of megaphones etc the need for that small hill for oratory has been lessened.
Well, I was there – protesting, along with many others. As ever, I think our protests got swallowed up in the central London ones.
I am not suggesting there was no protest on Blackheath about the 1988 version of the Poll Tax, because there obviously was – it was the first protest outside London with a big free festival as part of it – it was just that I couldn’t find anything on it relating to Whitefield’s Mount. It was before my time in SE London, I was not paying elsewhere. For the same reason I didn’t cover the 2009 Climate Protests, which were to the NE of the Mount. I did find some people dressed up as shrimps anti-poll tax protestors on Blackheath though. https://www.flickr.com/photos/dave_sinclair_liverpool_photos/3898184797/in/set-72157623673144706
I recall a festival and rally (on Blackheath, rather than specifically at Whitefield’s Mount) on the May Day bank holiday in 1981, celebrating the 600th anniversary of the Peasants’ Revolt. I think there was to have been some kind of C of E marking of the anniversary at Whitefield’s Mount in the June, but think it may have been called off.
You are certainly right about the 600th anniversary celebrations, there is a mention in an article by the sadly departed Paul Foot below. Thanks for ‘visiting’.
A very informative post really enjoyed reading it. Oh it brought back all those memories of the 1980s and the Poll Tax.
I am glad you liked it, I really enjoyed the research for it – one day I’ll try to do something on the more recent protests on Blackheath, perhaps a bit like the piece that e Shooters Hill did on the Oxleas Wood protests about a year ago.
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Just yards away from the Mount was Whitfields Mount Sand Mine – almost certainly some of the galleries still exist about 15-20 feet down. https://subterraneangreenwich.wordpress.com/2015/04/06/whitfields-mount-sand-mine-blackheath/
Fascinating – I had seen the outline on old Blackheath maps, but didn’t know anything about it. Have tweeted a link to it.
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Thanks for this. I did some research into open-air preaching as radical street performance and the connection between place, protest, open-air preaching, including I think a range of yet unexplored suffragette activities is fascinating and to which this makes a great contribution.
Thanks – that’s kind of you. It is an area I want to return to at some stage, both looking at some of the most recent protests on the Heath – Climate Camp & Poll Tax to name but two – & link with oral histories; but perhaps also did a bit more newspaper research on some of the things already covered.
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William Stukely, the eminent antiquarian, wrote this in 1722,
‘From Shooters hill the direction of the road, very plain both ways; a mile westward from the bottom of the hill you find vestiges of it just upon the common: some part of the agger is left, made of gravel near at hand: from the top of Shooters hill you see it butts upon Westminster abbey, where it passes the Thames; and this demonstrates its original direction, and that it was begun from the east; for the turn of the river at Greenwich intercepts it, though not observed in maps: so the way is forced to deflect a little southward there, and then recovers its point: beyond that hill it is very straight as far as the Ken reaches. On Black heath a vast tumulus, now used as a butt for archers, hereabouts in great request till Henry the VIIIth’s time and hence the name of Shooters hill.’
His reference to a vast tumulus close to the Roman road is significant. It is difficult to prove but I’ve always thought that WM is a tumulus because there were others which have long gone (see Drake’s ed. of Hasted). The Hundred Court met on Blackheath in the Middle Ages. The mount may have been the focus for those meetings. As you rightly say the mound itself has never been excavated. William Lambarde, the Elizabethan antiquary, in his Perambulation of the County of Kent in a reference to the Cornish rebellion mentions ‘the site of the Smith’s forge’, thought to be a reference to the mound. I haven’t got the Lambarde ref. immediately to hand so I hope that I have quoted more or less accurately. When the gorse and trees were completely burnt a year or sago the shape was fully revealed. All unprovable but endlessly fascinating.
That’s fascinating Julian, thank you. I will add some of it into the post at some stage.
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